Item
Price
class

Click to download the free parts

To buy other parts write to sergiofeitoza@cognitor.com.br

Contents and prices of parts of the complete training and SwitchgearDesign. 

Each table row is a video lasting 20 to 30 minutes andsome 20 to 30 slides. In case of doubt or to buy materials write to sergiofeitoza@cognitor.com.br

Price:   P1 = USD  30         P2 = USD 40         P3 = USD 60       P4 = USD 150        P5 = USD 500

1

Free

Click to see video

pdf

Program of the course "DESIGN of SWITCHGEAR, SWITCHBOARDS, BUSDUCTS & SUBSTATIONS with software SwitchgearDesign"      

In this video are shown the topics of the complete course whose parts can be obtained, separately, in the list below.

2

 

3

Free

Click to see video

pdf

Introducing the software SwitchgearDesign:

In this video you will understand the main applications and capabilities of SwitchgearDesign software. The main screens of the software are shown as well as applications, input and output variables, units, conditions of use and references used in the validation of results.

4

P5

(SOFTWARE) SwitchgearDesign COMPLETE

VERSION WITH ALL THE 5 TYPES OF CALCULATIONS
• Temperature rise
• Electrodynamic forces
• Magnetic fields
• Electric Fields
• Internal arc and overpressure

Here you will find the installer and the instructions to install the software and the first steps to use the software SwitchgearDesign. Include also the contents of 7b, 8b, 9b, 10b and 11c (but not the contents of 7a, 7c, 8a, 9a, 10a, 11a and 11b )

5

P1

Video available

pdf available

SPECIFICATION OF VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS IN NEW SUBSTATIONS

Here are explained the fundamentals of the application of load flow studies and short circuit studies in the planning of a new substation to define the values of the rated currents and voltages as well as shoert circuit values.

6

 

7 a

P3

Video available

pdf available

Concepts for temperature rise design & related tests

Concepts are presented , based on the IEC 60943 standard, for calculating contact resistances, loss of life, thermal losses by convection, radiation and conduction concepts appear,
The basics of the methods of calculating temperature rise are detailed as well as  test methods and impacts of the types, areas and fan speeds and materials, etc.
It also shows how to calculate the temperature rise of the internal fluid by the method of IEC 60890 and IEC 62208.
The requirements of the IEC 62271-1 are also shown and how to analyze the values of the temperature rise limits presented in IEC 62271-1, IEC 61439 and IEC 62271-200
There are also  details about de ageing mechanisms for contacts and connections and respective calculation of loss of life.

7 b

Free

 

Simulations of temperature rise tests

Step by step description on how to use SwitchgearDesign to design equipment in the aspects related to temperature rise tests on switchgear, switchboards, AIS, GIS, busbar systems and parts of substations.
Include test cases validated by laboratory test results and the information necessary to use the software. These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are also useful for whom wish to know what is possible to do with the software before buying it. The 7b1 video is a "static" presentation showing the main features and the 7b2 video present a "screen capture" during normal use.

7 c

P2

Simulation of loading cycles

Extension of simulations to load cycles of different current values and durations, such as occurs at peak and off-peak hours..
These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are useful also, to whom wish, before buying the software, to know how to apply it to solve problems.

8 a

P3

Concepts of calculation of electrodynamic stress and forces during short-circuit

Calculation concepts for electrodynamic forces and stresses based on IEC 61117 and IEC TR 60865-2 60865-1e IEC documents: Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects.
It includes teaching on how to assess the withstand ability of insulators and conductors including:

  • Calculate the static forces distributions
  • To convert static forces in "dynamic"
  • Calculate forces on insulators, shear forces and bending moment diagram.
  • Calculate mechanical stresses on the conductors = bending moment / resistant moment
  • Compare stresses in conductors and forces in insulators with permissible limits.

8 b

P2

Simulations of short time current and crest  tests ( electrodynamic forces and stresses)

(8b) Step by step description on how to use SwitchgearDesign to design equipment using the simulation of short time current and crest  tests on panels, AIS, GIS, busbar systems and parts of substations. Include test cases validated by laboratory test results.
Include test cases validated by calculations in IEC 61117 e IEC 60865   and the information necessary to use the software.
These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are useful also to whom wish, before buying the software, to know how to apply it to solve problems

9 a

P3

Concepts for internal arc tests and corresponding l overpressures

Are given the concepts for calculation of the overpressure and other effects of the internal arc based on brochure Cigré 602/2014 ( Sergio Feitoza is one of the co-authors) , IEC 62271-200 and IEC TR 61641.
It shows the importance and how to consider in the calculation the parameters as the compartment net volume, speed and characteristics of pressure relief devices

9 b

P2

Simulations of internal arc tests

Step by step description on how to use SwitchgearDesign to design equipment using the simulation of internal arc tests on panels, AIS, GIS, busbar systems and parts of substations.
Include test cases validated by laboratory test results and the information necessary to use the software.
These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are also useful for whom wish to know what is possible to do with the software before buying it.

10 a

P3

Concepts about magnetic fields and their effects

The electromagnetic fields occurring in substations due to the high currents and high voltages produce different effects on people and objects nearby. High levels of permanent magnetic or electric fields have impacts on the health of people exposed to them. These effects depend on the field strength and duration of exposure. There are specific legislations specifying the maximum values that should not be exceeded.

Permanent magnetic fields can also cause effects of magnetic induction and overheating in metal parts near to their source. In addition, transient magnetic fields produced by high currents at rated frequency (short circuit) or higher frequencies like in the switching of capacitive circuits, can induce high voltages in the control circuits and other closed circuits in substations.

This text is based on the Technical Report Cognitor 76 / 2016 MAGNETIC & ELECTRIC FIELDS IN SUBSTATIONS & NEIGHBORHOOD (Mapping for health legislation and to solve EMC problems).

The objective is to show how to calculate the values, which may occur, depending on the geometry of the object under study and the values of currents and voltages involved. The object may be a complete substation or an enclosed metallic equipment. The main applications are:

  • To verify if the values ​​of electromagnetic fields in a substation are lower than the reference levels established in references like ICNIRP “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz)”. There you may find limits for human exposure to electric and magnetic fields in generation, transmission and distribution.
  • To see if the magnetic field acting in a metal plate or part is sufficient to produce overheating by magnetic induction

10 b

P2

Mapping of magnetic fields

( 10 b ) This text is based on the Technical Report Cognitor 76 / 2016 MAGNETIC & ELECTRIC FIELDS IN SUBSTATIONS & NEIGHBORHOOD (Mapping for health legislation and to solve EMC problems).
It is presented the, step-by-step description on how to use SwitchgearDesign to the mapping of magnetic fields in complete substations or in panels, AIS, GIS, busbar systems and parts of substations.
Include test cases validated and the information necessary to use the software.
These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are also useful for whom wish to know what is possible to do with the software before buying it.

11 a

P3

Overvoltages, insulation coordination and safety distances

Concepts in which are based the technical standards for dielectric tests (applied voltage, impulse). It includes safety distances  for  discharges, magnetic fields and fires and explosions

11 b

P3

Main dielectric tests

Fundamentals of the main dielectric tests carried out in  high voltage laboratories (applied voltage, impulse, corona, partial discharges, RIV ..)

11 c

P2

Mapping of electric fields

( 11c ) This text is based on the Technical Report Cognitor 76 / 2016 MAGNETIC & ELECTRIC FIELDS IN SUBSTATIONS & NEIGHBORHOOD (Mapping for health legislation and to solve EMC problems).
It is presented the, step-by-step description on how to use SwitchgearDesign to the mapping of electric fields in complete substations or in panels, AIS, GIS, busbar systems and parts of substations.
Include test cases validated and the information necessary to use the software.
These explanations do not include the software, which is available in item 4b of this table. They are also useful for whom wish to know what is possible to do with the software before buying it

12

P2

Breaking and making tests in circuit breakers, switches and fuses (TRV)

Here are presented the fundamentals of the main switchgear and protection equipment as circuit breakers, switches and fuses. Some particularities of the technologies are described as well as the key aspects of the TRV specifications and the breaking and making tests.

13

P1

Power arc tests in insulators strings for transmission lines

( 13 ) The repetitive occurrence of external power arcs in insulator strings at a certain point may lead to damage to the string and even falling down of the transmission line. Some high power tests are specified for verification of the ability to support these stresses. Here the concepts and specifications are explained

14

P3

Technical specifications for the purchase of circuit breakers, disconnectors, surge arresters, transformers)

(14) The text discusses aspects of the specifications made by power utilities and large users of electricity. It is explained first, why the more efficient specification is just the technical standard with a few additions.
It is presented some typical errors that occur when the company instead of referring to standards, starts preparing new texts including unverifiable requirements.

Examples will be used for power transformers, circuit breakers, disconnectors, switches and lightning arresters, current transformers and switchgear.
Will be seen aspects as the nominal voltage, maximum continuous operating voltage , withstand voltages at rated frequency, withstand voltages for impulse, short time withstand currents and crest, radio interference voltage voltages for corona initiation and extinction
The concepts of type tests will be presented:
• Withstand voltage at lightning impulse.
• Withstand voltage at switching impulse, dry and wet.
• Withstand voltage at power frequency, dry (1 min), rain (10 s)
• Temperature rise.
• Rated short-time withstand current and crest.
• Mechanical resistance and operation.
• Radio interference voltage
• Visual corona test.

15 a

P3

Technical Standards for low voltage switchgear and controlgear (IEC 61439 and IEC TR 61641

Here we present some aspects of the IEC 61439 (Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies) and of  IEC TR 61641 (low-voltage guide for testing under conditions of arcing due to internal fault)

IEC 61439 is originated from the previous series IEC 60439 where a new concept was implemented. Suppose that there is a certain switchgear design type, which was completely type, tested and there is another untested switchgear for which we wish to avoid repeating some tests. The standard permits some tests to be replaced by calculations or simulations if the basic design of the untested equipment was the same and the differences between both were not considerable. The two tests, which could be replaced by calculations in IEC 60439, were the temperature rise test   and the short time current tests (electro dynamical and thermal stresses).
IEC 60439 evolved to the IEC 61439 series, initially published in 2011, which brought a new concept named “design rules”. In this series of standards, the wording “testing” is replaced by “design verification”. The design verification may be done by tests, by certain design rules and by calculations / simulations.
Here we explain how to understand and how to use the design rules to avoid onerous tests. Other aspects of the standard are explained.
Internal arc tests in low voltage switchgear are becoming a “must” for the equipment buyers although this test is not a type test in the current version of IEC 61439.

IEC TR 61641:2014 gives guidance on the method of testing of assemblies under conditions of arcing in air due to an internal fault. The purpose of this test is to assess the ability of the assembly to limit the risk of personal injury, damage of assemblies and its suitability for further service as a result of an internal arcing fault.
This third edition includes significant technical changes related to the previous version including arcing classes to define the different forms of protection provided against arcing faults;

  1. personnel protection,
  2. damage restricted to part of the assembly, and
  3. Assembly suitable for limited further service.

Here we explain the TR 61641and clarify several aspects which cause doubts in users.

15 b

P3

Technical Standards for medium voltage switchgear and controlgear (IEC 62271-200):

Here we present some fundaments, opportunities and details of the IEC 62271-200 (medium voltage switchgear)

This standard specifies requirements for medium voltage metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear for indoor and outdoor installation. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation.
It includes definitions, classifications and testing procedures as well as classification and procedures for internal arc tests
. IEC 62271-200 is to be read in conjunction with IEC 62271-1 and requirements of both are explained here.

15 c

P3

IEC 62271-307 for extension of the validity of medium voltage switchgear test reports (fundamentals)

Here we present the fundamentals of the new document IEC Technical Report TR 62271-307: High-voltage Switchgear and Controlgear – Part 307: Guidance for the extension of validity of type tests of AC metal and solid-insulation enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV.  
It will be published in 2016 and includes the possibility of extending the validity of reports to avoid tests in medium voltage switchgear.
Sergio Feitoza is member of the IEC working group, which is preparing this new standard.

This document coincides with some principles of the IEC 61439 but with a much more complete reasoning and details for the implementation of the concepts. On the contrary of IEC 61439, it is not applicable only to temperature rise and electro dynamical forces and, instead, cover all the type tests.

This document allows, observing certain rules that a test report carried out in a certain type of switchgear to be used as a basis for a study that would replace tests on an untested one of the same family. It is aimed at extending the validity of test reports to avoid the unnecessary repetition of tests of IEC 62271-200 and 62271-201 standards.

Here we explain the details of this new IEC document which will have a considerable impact in the medium voltage switchgear market..

16

P3

IEC 60890 and IEC 62208: Enclosures for cubicles and switchboards (calculations and specification)

In this document we explain how to do calculations of the temperatures of fluids inside enclosures filled with the typical components of switchgear (IEC 60890)  and how to specify  empty enclosures to be used for switchgear ( IEC 62208)

IEC TR 60890 presents a method of (air) temperature-rise assessment by extrapolation for switchgear and controlgear. This method is applicable to enclosed assemblies or partitioned sections of assemblies without forced ventilation. This method is based on the dimensions of the switchgear, the power dissipation, the size and existence of ventilations openings and the number of partitions. The results that can be obtained by this easy method are very good and consistent for the ones playing with temperature rise tests simulation.

IEC 62208 is a standard to enable the specification of empty enclosures for switchgear and controlgear assemblies. It applies to empty enclosures, prior to the incorporation of switchgear and controlgear components by the user, as supplied by the enclosure manufacturer. This standard specifies general definitions, classifications, characteristics and test requirements of enclosures to be used as part of assemblies. Although prepared with focus in the IEC 61439 series (low voltage) the concepts are also interesting for medium voltage switchgear.
It is suitable for switchgear for general use for either indoor or outdoor applications.

Here we explain the details of these IEC documents, which have a considerable application for low voltage and medium voltage switchgear experts.

17

P3

Some case studies to understand the basics of ATP / ATPDRAW

The software   ATP / ATPDRAW   (Alternative Transient Program)‏ is a free software originated from the EMTP for the calculation of voltages and currents transients.

It is an excellent tool for daily use and certainly a mandatory tool for use by electrical engineers.
In this part  we present the instructions for installation and give some examples of how to use ATP / ATPDRAW to calculate:

  • The short circuit current during the opening of a short circuit by a circuit breaker, considering the local parameters of resistance, inductance and capacitance.
  • The transients during the switching of a capacitive circuit of a transmission line or a capacitor bank.
  • The transients during the switching of a bank of reactors.
  • How to assess the voltage drop in substations nearby when a short circuit occur in a specific substation
  • Some other didactic cases

18

Free

A "GUIDE" FOR THE USE OF CALCULATIONS AND SIMULATION OF LABORATORY TESTS

The document:    S. Feitoza, "GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF SIMULATIONS AND CALCULATIONS TO REPLACE SOME TESTS SPECIFIED IN INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS -. COGNITOR GUIDE 2010” Is a proposal for the text of a new technical standard.
It is one of the references in the “Brochure Cigré 602 / 2014 - Tools for the simulation of the effects of the internal arc in transmission and distribution switchgear” prepared by WG A3-24 of Cigré International.

19

P4

(SOFTWARE)  DECIDIX for  TECHNICAL ECONOMYCAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY PROJECTS (generation, transmission and distribution) WITH TRAINING

The software Decidix is a tool developed to do feasibility studies for companies in the electrical sector. It is intended to be a tool to be used by people not skilled in financial mathematics techniques and to people without experience in technical questions which influence in the feasibility of the business, for example the fuel efficiency of a power plant. The focus is on projects of power generation with renewables (wind, small hydro, solar, biomass, and biodiesel), nonrenewable fuels (natural gas, coal, oil, nuclear), transmission lines, and distribution substations.
It can be useful to people working within the renewable and non-renewable energy business field.
The Decidix enable to do from “easy” things like calculating the cost of the energy produced in a power plant up to complex analysis involving trends scenarios and the prioritization of groups of investment projects of different natures.
The program of the training include 3 sections (movies)  of 20 minutes each covering the following topics:
General view of business and projects in the electric and energy sector (purchase and sales of energy, auctions for grants in generation, transmission and distribution, legislation, programs of incentives, risks of the business, ...)

  • Technical fundaments related to technologies for power plants, transmission and distribution installations and lines. Including renewable and nonrenewable energy (small to big hydro power plants, thermal generation, cogeneration, wind , solar, distributed generation, fuel cells)
  • Methodology for the technical - economic analysis of the feasibility of energy projects (using the software Decidix included)
  • Case studies

20

P1

Fundaments of the design of high power and high voltage testing laboratories


The document is intended to be read by companies interested in implementing a new laboratory facility.
We describe some basic steps for the implementation of testing laboratories and what is necessary to assess when doing the initial feasibility study for the implementation of these expensive installations.

21

P3

Protection against explosions and fires in substations

Details on Brazilian technical standards NBR 13231, NBR 8222, NBR 12232 and NBR 8674

NBR 13231 - Fire Protection in conventional electrical substations of transmission systems. Procedure;
NBR 8222 - Protection Systems by depressurization, drain and bustle of insulating oil for power transformers and reactors;
NBR 8674 - Systems with nebulized water for power transformers and reactors;
 NBR 12232 - Systems with carbon dioxide, for total flooding for power transformers and reactors containing insulating oil.

22

P4

One hour of consultancy work via videoconference with Sergio Costa Feitoza

Sergio is the author of training and software. These consultancies are often used to ask or clarifying questions, to conduct studies of additional cases or for assistance in the development of equipment designs or designs of testing laboratories.
See, case by case, particularly for longer durations consultancies.
Available in English, Spanish, Portuguese and, depending on the case, French